This Special Report highlights the significant, yet chronically underreported major role African women play in the sector, more so in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM). In Africa, the ASM workforce comprises no less than 40-50% women; this report highlights a selection of them in Ghana, Guinea and Tanzania, and reveals the key challenges that women face in the sector and what can be done to make it more gender-responsive
This report documents the use of child labor in artisanal and small-scale mines in Ghana’s Western, Central, and
Ashanti Regions, focusing on unlicensed sites, which constitute the vast majority of mines. It also analyzes the measures that some gold traders and refiners take to avoid supporting child labor by buying gold mined with child labor.
Tychsen, J., Appel, P.W.U., Hassan, U.A., Jørgensen, T. & Azubike, O.C.
The objective of this study is to conceptualise the ICGLR's Regional Initiative against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources (RINR) EITI tool by examining the opportunities to enhance transparency in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) and the mineral supply chains in the Great Lakes Region.
This article examines the recentralization of power in this growing informal sector, exploring how heavy-handed implementation of national reforms contributed to livelihood insecurity. The study emphasizes how national officials invoked “formalization” rationales for mining policy shifts that obscured their underlying political and economic drivers, disempowering local district authorities and deepening the marginalization of informal livelihoods.
This report argues that recognition of this diversity of responsible vs. irresponsible operators will be a key first step in allowing the government to develop adequate policies to effectively interact with the sector. The current policy of criminalisation, on the contrary, risks undermining an industry which represents one of the few viable sources of income for the country's impoverished groups.
The interaction between large-scale mining companies and artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) operations has not always been positive, and encounters between the two sectors are increasing. There are a number of ASM sustainable development challenges – including security, human rights and relocation programs – that can require specific ASM consideration.
This document compiles the summaries of the five case studies that were developed for the analysis for stakeholders on formalization in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector based on experiences in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.