This Special Report highlights the significant, yet chronically underreported major role African women play in the sector, more so in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM). In Africa, the ASM workforce comprises no less than 40-50% women; this report highlights a selection of them in Ghana, Guinea and Tanzania, and reveals the key challenges that women face in the sector and what can be done to make it more gender-responsive
Morgane M.C. Fritz; Peter A. Maxson; and Rupert J. Baumgartner
For many years, the use of mercury in ASGM has afforded an income for many persons without better options, but has brought with it extensive harm to the environment, the miners and their communities. This paper analyzes the stakeholders and their diverse roles with regard to the trade and supply of mercury for Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining and applies a supply chain management approach to stakeholder theory.
This report documents the use of child labor in artisanal and small-scale mines in Ghana’s Western, Central, and
Ashanti Regions, focusing on unlicensed sites, which constitute the vast majority of mines. It also analyzes the measures that some gold traders and refiners take to avoid supporting child labor by buying gold mined with child labor.
Tychsen, J., Appel, P.W.U., Hassan, U.A., Jørgensen, T. & Azubike, O.C.
The objective of this study is to conceptualise the ICGLR's Regional Initiative against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources (RINR) EITI tool by examining the opportunities to enhance transparency in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) and the mineral supply chains in the Great Lakes Region.
This article examines the recentralization of power in this growing informal sector, exploring how heavy-handed implementation of national reforms contributed to livelihood insecurity. The study emphasizes how national officials invoked “formalization” rationales for mining policy shifts that obscured their underlying political and economic drivers, disempowering local district authorities and deepening the marginalization of informal livelihoods.
Salo, M., Hiedanpaa, J., Karlsson, T., Ávila Cárcamo, L., Kotilainen, J., Jounela, P., García Rumrrill, R.
A growing number of governments and donors are promoting the formalization of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). They believe that doing so puts them in a better position to govern the sector, and manage the social and environmental impacts of its activities. This paper reflects critically on attempts made to formalize ASM in Madre de Dios in Peruvian Amazonia.
Can state gold-buying programmes (SGBPs) be an effective tool for governments – to not only bolster state financial reserves, but also to reform the sector, raising its standards and improving its environmental and social outcomes? And can these programmes operate in countries that often lack institutional capacity, infrastructure and stability? This paper analyses case studies in five countries, drawing out the challenges and potential factors for success in developing an effective SGBP.
This report argues that recognition of this diversity of responsible vs. irresponsible operators will be a key first step in allowing the government to develop adequate policies to effectively interact with the sector. The current policy of criminalisation, on the contrary, risks undermining an industry which represents one of the few viable sources of income for the country's impoverished groups.
This document compiles the summaries of the five case studies that were developed for the analysis for stakeholders on formalization in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector based on experiences in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.